Memorialized forever in crossword form

Lou Reed died on October 27th, and a mere four days later Brendan Emmett Quigley has his tribute crossword up. It’s getting competitive out there.

Crossword constructors have an ambivalent relationship to tribute puzzles:
on the one hand, this is our art form, and if someone we admire passes away it’s natural we’d want to honor them through our art, as a songwriter or poet would.

On the other hand, it’s a crossword puzzle, which may be viewed as too unserious a medium for honoring the dead. When I wrote weekly crosswords for a well-known entertainment magazine I was expressly forbidden from writing tribute puzzles for exactly that reason. Article about George Harrison’s death? Sure. Crossword about it? No thanks.

But if you’re going to do it, do two things: 1) get there first, like Brendan does here, and 2) don’t just cram in a bunch of song/movie/book titles, which is the obvious way to play it. Find something a little more subtle, as Brendan does at the above link, where he uses a Lou Reed quote about music as his theme.

4 Across with … Merl Reagle

This is the first installment of what will be an ongoing feature here, “4 Across with …” I’ll ask four questions to a crossword puzzle personality, and they’ll entertain/inform us with their answers.


Stoked to have Merl Reagle as the inaugural 4 Across, a living legend and an idol of mine since childhood. Merl’s syndicated 21×21 crosswords appears in scores of newspapers across the country, and fans love him for his wacky puns, creative fill and whimsical clues. He’s proof that solvers will attach themselves to a specific constructor instead of a publication if they get that option (and like what they’re solving).

He also has a new volume coming out next week, Merl Reagle’s 100th Anniversary Crossword Book. It’s illustrated by Pulitzer-winning cartoonist Jim Borgman.

Merl book

Without further ado: 4 Across with … Merl Reagle:

QUESTION #1: You made a living from crossword puzzles before the internet existed. How on earth did you pull that off without Crossword Compiler, e-mail, PayPal, Across Lite, Google Groups and Kickstarter?

MERL REAGLE: The pay for puzzles was pretty poor in the 1960s and ’70s — I got $10 for my first NYT puzzle in 1966 — but it started getting better once GAMES arrived on the scene, perhaps because it was a magazine run by puzzlemakers rather than just editors. Still, the Pencilwise section of GAMES ran only three or four regular crosswords per month, so I was lucky to sell them even one crossword every couple of months. And the Ornery Puzzle, especially a wide-open one, took a very long time to make, so even then the crossword game was a labor of love, not a living. I started making puzzles for Dell in the early ’80s just to be able to sell more puzzles on a regular basis (and because I liked Dell’s editor, Erica Rothstein). The money was in Sunday-size puzzles — 21s — which was good, but they took a lot longer to make. My reference books at the time were pretty much everything that was available, including letter-finder books, which contained six- and seven-letter words sorted by their letter positions (such as _ _ T _ _ L).

It was clear by the mid-’80s that I was not the kind of constructor who could just churn out puzzles to make decent money. What I wanted was a regular newspaper gig — making one Sunday crossword a week for a major newspaper, and hoping to get $300 or $400 for it. Then I could make a few extra puzzles on the side to supplement that. I finally got such a job when the San Francisco Examiner started a new Sunday magazine called Image in October 1985. That was when I truly started to make a living from crosswords. It was also my first chance to be the editor of my own puzzles. At the Examiner, gags appeared in the puzzles exactly as I wrote them. Previously, they were often edited extensively, often to the point where the humor was diluted or no longer there. In my new book I write about one particular puzzle, an April Fools puzzle in 1990, that drew so much mail that the magazine’s entire letters section was devoted to it. It was then that I realized that there were a lot of solvers out there who were on my wavelength, that “funny crosswords” had a lot of potential.

In late 1990, my better half Marie Haley and I started flying to newspaper conventions to try to sell the puzzle. (She was the driving force. I never would have done it on my own.) Every time we went we’d sell one new paper on the idea. We had a pretty good sales pitch and often cracked up the editors with the themes of the puzzles. In 1991 we got the Hartford Courant, in 1992 we got the Seattle Times and New York Observer, in 1993 the Syracuse Post-Standard, in 1995 the Philadelphia Inquirer and Cleveland Plain Dealer, in 1997 the Los Angeles Times, etc., etc., until we had about 15 major dailies as part of our homegrown “syndicate.” Some of them paid a little, some paid a lot, but it all came down to making a single crossword a week and making a living off it. When the Washington Post came along in 2008, its sister papers came along with it, putting us over the 50-papers mark.

And until 2005 I was still using grid paper. Old habits die hard. But Crossword Compiler is waaay better.

QUESTION #2: Your pun themes are legendary. Give us a couple of your personal favorite themes/answers.

MR: The puns fall into two categories, regular and respelled. Regular ones are like, PSYCHO WARD (only episode of “Leave It To Beaver” that never aired) and respelled ones are like, GARGOYLES WITH SALTWATER (least-ordered dish at the Quasimodo Diner). My favorite type, though, is the “concept” theme, which is a very different animal. These are themes like “signs in a department store that you hope Junior won’t take literally” (THROW RUGS, SLIT SKIRTS, POCKET CALCULATORS, etc.) and “inappropriate Muzak for a doctor’s office” (KILLING ME SOFTLY, STOP DRAGGIN’ MY HEART AROUND, etc.)

QUESTION #3: There’s a strong connection between music and crossword ability. Anything you’d like to share on that front?

MR: I took organ lessons when I was 10, and in my teens I picked up a little piano (insert rimshot here). Now I’m a synthesizer guy. I’m a huge music fan, especially rock and pop rock, and especially ’60s rock. I collect movie soundtracks. I like classical but not opera. You’d think, with my being a word guy, that I might be a natural poet or lyricist. Mmmm, no. I was in a rock band called Greylock Mansion in my early 20s, played keyboards and lead-sang, wrote 21 songs, most of which were awful. The last one, though, was pretty decent. It was called “Over My Shoulder” and became a local hit in Tucson AZ, where I lived at the time. (Okay, geez, I’ll admit it. After all these years, someone just put the song on YouTube two months ago.) I then left the band and joined an acting troupe in the early 1970s — we did about a dozen original musicals and I wrote the music for all of the songs. I’ve been writing songs ever since. (I’m a little better at it now). [NOTE: Just to be clear, that’s 22-year-old Merl himself singing lead on “Over My Shoulder” below. Guy coulda been a 1970s pop star!]

One similarity to puzzle construction is having a kind of instinct that “I know this is doable … the answer is within reach.” Trying to get a puzzle theme to work and a melody to work — and in both cases to make the result seem natural — are very similar tasks, at least for me. They both involve creatively building something.

QUESTION #4: For those who don’t know it, tell the story about the merlot. And the story about Tampa Bay Rays pitcher Alex Cobb. And then one more of your choice.

MR: The Fetzer Eagle Peak Merlot story is one I tell in the book, and gee, if I told it here it would definitely ruin the puzzle for most people! I will say this — within a few days of the puzzle appearing I got a note from the winery … there was a klatsch of employees there who were fans of mine and the note said to watch for something coming in the mail. It turned out to be a complimentary case of the wine. (We still have a few bottles left, now that I think about it.) My closing line to this story is that the following week I made a puzzle about owning a Lexus, but nothing happened.

As to Alex Cobb: He’s one of the star pitchers for the Tampa Bay Rays. I was staring at his name one day, thinking, why am I staring at this guy’s name? What could possibly be done with those eight inhospitable letters? And then I noticed that it anagrammed into a common two-word expression — something without which I probably could not watch Rays games. I find this to be frequently true, that a puzzle often comes from a place where you least expect it.

One other story: I was making a 21 a couple years ago and I was doing it the hard way — the toughest part of the puzzle was in the center, but I was constructing it from the outside in. When I finally did get to the center I could not think of any word to go into the nine-letter central spot. Then it hit me — the little windshield wipers that many cars have on their back windows. It was late, I wrote it in, and fell asleep, a very happy camper. Only when I woke up the next morning and looked at the puzzle again did I realize REAR WIPER was not the answer to my prayers.

Theme twins

Today’s New York Times crossword (by Kevan Choset) uses the same theme as a 2009 Los Angeles Times puzzle (by Todd McClary). In both cases, the constructors found phrases ensconcing the word EARTH, such as CLEAR THE AIR, I DIDN’T HEAR THAT and LINEAR THINKING. The revealer is J.R.R. Tolkien’s MIDDLE EARTH, which is the final theme entry in both puzzles and describes the gimmick nicely.


Of course, the puzzles weren’t exactly alike — the clues and grids were different, and the only theme entries the two shared were CLEAR THE AIR and MIDDLE EARTH. But the idea was still the same, and it’s always interesting to compare how two constructors approach the same concept. Here is a review of Todd’s 2009 puzzle, and here is a review of Kevan’s 2013 puzzle.

The most striking difference between the two is that Todd went with four theme entries, while Kevan chose to use five. This made the fill in Kevan’s a little less smooth than Todd’s since he had that extra entry to accommodate.

Note also that there’s no question of plagiarism when this happens in crossword puzzles. Constructors are a small group and we know and trust each other; besides, we’ve all been on both sides of the theme duplication fence many times and understand that it just happens.

Here’s an article I wrote explaining more on this subject, from when I unknowingly duplicated a theme that crossword legend Mike Shenk had used previously.

Jekyll and Hyde (or something like that)

I solved Erik Agard’s L.A. Times puzzle today in just over 5 minutes, which is about how long it took me to solve last week’s puzzle at his personal site, where he posts every Wednesday. Except for the solving times, the two experiences had little in common.


His Times puzzle features a conservative theme, grid and clues, which Erik (and Times editor Rich Norris) have tailored for their large audience. The wildest it gets is a DON RICKLES reference (clued as Insult comic who was a frequent Johnny Carson guest).

The most modern reference is to, which you must know is an online seller of SHOES. TEDS is clued with a nod to longtime TV presences Knight and Koppel, not more recent Teds like senator Cruz or sports team owner Leonsis.

And there is absolutely nothing wrong with this. My mother, who is 73, would love this puzzle. She deserves a crossword like this — aimed at her demographic — and I’m glad that the L.A. Times provides it.

But look at the second puzzle, the one on his own site, where the mild-mannered Dr. Jekyll becomes the wildman Mr. Hyde: Erik sets the tone at 1-across right away with Screw over as the clue for DO IN, and entries referencing sitcom star AZIZ Ansari, rapper TALIB Kweli, and unfunny comic Kathy Griffin follow (not to mention the riqsue BOOB JOB).

This puzzle is also filled with hilariously goofy clues like How many crossword solvers does it take to screw in a light ___? for BULB (I don’t know the answer to that one) and Energy drink with a Relaunch flavor that was discontinued and…nope, hasn’t been relaunched for AMP. It’s not all hip and edgy, though; there are also many literary references throughout the clues, for example.

With a production time of days instead of months, Erik is also able to reference very recent news, cluing the National ZOO as Government shutdown closure and LIN as Jeremy who led the Rockets to victory in Taiwan on Sunday.

I personally find the puzzle written by the whimsical Erik Hyde more enjoyable that the one written by the reserved Erik Jekyll. But I also think it’s fantastic that the internet allows us to choose from both.

And no, “Jekyll and Hyde” isn’t really the right analogy here since crossword writers don’t suddenly turn evil when we post puzzles on our own sites as opposed to tailoring them for more general audiences. But we do get to write puzzles that express our personalities and interests more than those we write for big publications; that’s the heart of the “indie crossword” movement, and it’s an exciting thing to be a part of.

The new question

The question crossword solvers used to ask each other was “Pencil or pen?” Answering “pen,” of course, suggested that you were a real pro.

pencil pen

The question these days, though, is “Paper or electronic?” Paper’s probably still king (no stats exist, so we can’t be sure), but its crown is loosening and will eventually yield to the electronic juggernaut.

The biggest advantage e-solving has is its cheat function, giving the solver a word (or even a single letter) of their choice. Sometimes that’s all you need to crack a puzzle open, but with print it’s tough to sneak a peek at just the letter or word you want without also seeing surrounding entries.

Paper solvers sometimes find electronic solving jarring at first. If that might be you, consider the Puzzazz app, which lets you write letters in the grid with your finger!

Crossword themes can come from anywhere

As my daily crossword from today shows (these puzzles appear daily here, but I copied today’s below for this post).

I came up with the idea while using a restroom in a restaurant here in Staunton. Everyone hopes the bathroom door lock works, and it usually does, but I imagined this funny dialogue between the two parties involved if the occupant accidentally forgot to use it (see 3-down and 9-down).

The sneakiest of all clue tricks

At 50-across in last Sunday’s New York Times crossword, constructor Jeff Chen unleashed this clue on solvers for a 7-letter entry starting with C: Sonata starters. sonata-hyundai-2014-09

“Tricky clue,” writes puzzle critic Amy Reynaldo at her website. “Looks like a musical clue, but we’re dealing with the Hyundai Sonata here.” Now that you know that, the answer comes much more easily: CAR KEYS.

This is an example of the masked capital letter, the most devious of all clue tricks in the constructor’s bag. The clue Starters of Sonatas wouldn’t have been as effective, since the capital S of Sonatas gives the game away. Placing the capitalized word at the front of the sentence conceals that it’s a proper noun, as the solver will assume that word is capitalized simply because of its location.

Similarly, the clue Post subject is MANNERS since we mean Emily Post; Nice day is JOUR since it references the French city of Nice; and Boxer who pulls no punches is BARBARA since it’s the senator we’re talking about, not an athlete.